Tuesday, 23 December 2014

The Road to Wealth - Kvulo Lorin, Director-Administration

A Naga village woman carrying water, firewood and her baby along a dusty road – Photographer: Imti Longchar

Oil prices are falling (more than 40% since June 2014 from $115 to less than $70 a barrel) and the Russian economy is currently floundering. Closer home, our humble old villagers are probably oblivious to the crashing Russian currency and concentrating more on pressuring their marriageable age grandchildren to get married while making preparations for the Christmas service. Oil prices probably aren’t really a concern for a grandmother who leads a simple life in the village. Sadly, that kind of life is on the decline due to the rapid urbanisation in today’s world.


Food for thought as we celebrate the festive season. 
We wish our readers a Merry Christmas. 

The Road to Wealth

The national highway that connects Kohima with Tseminyu and Wokha is so bumpy that it feels like it could wake a dead man if he was taken through it. This was my thought as I travelled through this highway to my village in November. After such a tiring journey, the saddest thing was to be greeted by an empty village, almost akin to a ghost town. The deserted look was only punctured by a few people carrying water and tending animals. There didn’t seem to be many people, except either the very old or the very young. The people from the village who were of school and college going age had all migrated to the towns and cities to study, the young and married were all searching for employment and working in the towns or cities. Basically, it was only the very old or the very young living in the village. I must have looked dejected because one of the elders pulled me aside and told me with a smile that the kids return during the holidays and the village starts bustling again.

I think our Naga society is reaching a stage where people are slowly moving away from the prospect of village life and are eager to shift to the towns or from the towns to the big city. Everyone wants a life where they can live comfortably. The road to wealth and comfort is slowly and surely shifting base to the towns now.

Our towns do offer comparatively better infrastructure, electricity, water, education, health facilities and a better quality of life compared to many villages. However, our towns are struggling to cope with this huge migration from the villages. A visit to local social networking groups will reveal a torrent of complaints regarding the pitiful condition of these towns. Issues ranging from corruption, the Naga political problem to petty traffic violations are aired, discussed, debated and sometimes mocked.  The politicians, church and the Naga Political Groups seem to be the punching bags in the online world. The irony is that while these three institutions are abused and insulted in the relative anonymity of the online world; in the real world, our people fall over themselves to hail and revere them so as to be in their good books by inviting them to inaugurate functions, buildings and more. Our behaviour towards the three institutions - church, government and NPG’s is creating a strange paradox as we move from the virtual to the online world. At the heart of all these rants rings frustration, an open airing of opinions where our people seem to be expressing the disconnect they have from their political representatives, church and the NPG’s.

As we transition to a modern society these problems are only to be expected. We do have problems, we do have a lot of issues. But what is aggravating the situation and holding us back is not that we have problems, but the fact that we seem to be taking too long to solve these problems or conveniently trying to close our eyes and pretend they don’t exist. This calls for the institutions and powerful to make tough decisions and push them through. Otherwise, for all our talk of being one people the economic divide that is growing will only speed up the process of splitting our Naga family apart as everyone pulls each other down to grab the fruits of development and progress. Instead of pulling each other down, our Naga family and institutions that are in it need to work together. A great example of this is how Japan managed to forgive the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which is estimated to have killed 300,000 people and actually became a very valuable ally and trading partner of the USA.  Even though China and Japan are rivals and its communist form of government make it a natural enemy of the USA, all three countries have open trade and investment with each other for mutually beneficial reasons.   

In the above example, it shows how economic integration won over political rivalry even among enemy countries. However, the fact is that money invariably also draws crime. If the government or some other institution controls money then the government or the institution naturally draws in criminals or people who wish to extract it for their personal needs.  Economists, Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson in their book “Why Nations Fail” write that it is institutions that are key to directing the fate of a nation. According to the authors, Nations fail when institutions are "extractive," protecting the political and economic power of only a small elite that takes income from everyone else.

The road to wealth doesn’t seem to be in the villages anymore, nor will it even be in the state of Nagaland unless our political and economic institutions are "inclusive" and pluralistic, creating incentives for everyone to invest in the future.



Tuesday, 16 December 2014

What about our teachers?- Kim Judy, Head of Department of Education



“One time while travelling back home, a co-passenger asked me my profession. When I told him that I am a teacher he did not lose any time in asking me next, “private or government?” After that I received a sympathetic expression, along with the last question which is an advice really, “Why don’t you try competitive exams?"
– Food for thought on how society perceives teachers today


What about our teachers?


This article is based on my experience as an educator or a teacher. Teaching for me is an honest profession and it is not possible for everyone to become a successful teacher. It requires much more than degrees and qualifications.In fact, it demands innumerable qualities such as sincerity, accountability, patience, empathy, etc. to name a few.  I’m proud of myself recollecting the successes of my students in terms of result and career. It has helped mebuild and work on my weaknesses and encourages meeveryday to do better. Even as a teacher we do learn lots of new things from our students which contributes to making one a better and understanding teacher.
 
As for some of us, teaching is not just a job but a passion and so we give our all not just to produce good results but alsoresponsible citizen. Here, I would like to share my own story; having parents who loved education, I was sent to one of the best private institutions with the best teachers who taught me almost everything and my due appreciation goes to them. The question is how was I taught? The strongest tool to make me learn and mug up everything despite my average memory was punishment. It was not psychological teaching where the focus should be on the student’s capabilities and interests. Learning was never exciting as we were not taught about its utilities and relevant examples were absent. Teachers nowadays are well qualified and teach not just the subject but use all the sophisticated educational technologies for effective learning. Teachers are expected to evaluate the students continuously for remedial teaching and also present their topics with relevant practical examples to make learning useful and applicable for the learners. Being a teacher, we do influence the life of students directly or indirectly and so a teacher has a huge role to play. Besides doing our bit in educating the child, it happens that parents sometimes expect too much from the teacher not realizing it’s not just difficult but alsoquite impossible. As a result, the student’s entire success depends on the teachers’ effort which is not always the same with each individual student/children.

Having mentioned about what teaching is and the importance of teachers, let’s get to the most important part of this write-up, which is, “Does the society appreciate my hard work and effort?” Being in this profession I always get the sympathy of others but not their respect and appreciation. Our society does recognize all types of government employees, except the honest efforts and contributions of educators. In my five years of teaching profession, there are only a handful of parents and students who actually appreciated me for my work as a teacher and I have also seen my fellow colleagues being given the same. Having had our last parents-teachers meeting in September where I personally met around forty parents and guardians, not more than five actually appreciated the forgotten effort. Our society has to change for the better by showing respect and gratitude to these teachers for educating our children. In my present work place we don’t teach just the subject but punctuality, sincerity, respect for individuality, team work, integrity, hard work, etc. and many more, which is true education. It is high time we should recognize and appreciate our teachers and not just blame them for the failure of our children. As it is famously pointed out, "Teachers are the maker of society”. Here’s my experience; one time while travelling back home, a co-passenger asked my profession, not knowing and least expecting what I was about to tell him. When I told him that I am a teacher he did not lose any time asking me, 'private or government?’ After that I got the sympathetic expression along with the last question which is an advice really, “why don’t you try competitive exams?" You can imagine how I felt at that moment. First of all,my co-passenger, did not realize the extent of the contributions of a teacher. Secondly, the incident goes to show how easy it is to break or make a teacher's conviction knowingly or unknowingly. Of course,I don't blame my co-passenger for that. It is a testament as to how teachers are perceived by the society. For that matter, perceptions ought to change. Respect and appreciation should not be based on how much money one makes in a month or in a year but it should be earned based on one’s contribution to the society. It is said that on an average, even spiritual gurus save much more than a teacher. In my profession we don’t expect awards and cash prizes from the society but a little respect from society and a small gesture of "Thank you” from parents and students will go a long way. It will help us shape better leaders in the future. It’s time to realize that teachers can do a better job if motivated and appreciated by parents and society, therefore understanding the fact that we all love to be appreciated, be it for a small achievement or a big one. Our development in all fields depends on the kind of teacher and the appreciation we show.
 
“Degree of Thought is a weekly community column initiated by Tetso College in partnership with The Morung Express. Degree of Thought will delve into the social, cultural, political and educational issues around us. The views expressed here do not reflect the opinion of the institution. Tetso College is a NAAC Accredited UGC recognised Commerce and Arts College. For feedback or comments please email: admin@tetsocollege.org”. 

Celebrating Christmas - Daniel Khan, Asst. Professor, Dept. of Political Science



The festive season is in the air! The towns and villages in Nagaland have never looked as bright and cheery as they are now, flooded with Christmas lights and decorations, food and fun. However, as we celebrate this season, let us also make sure that the true meaning of Christmas is not lost on us and keep our Saviour close to our hearts. 

Celebrating Christmas


Christmas is supposed to be a special time of celebration and joy. It’s a time when families get together and recall old memories and create new ones. We give presents to many family and friends and they do the same – it’s a wonderful tradition. But in the midst of all our Christmas festivities we may forget that it is Jesus’ birthday we’re celebrating.  For many people, Christmas is just another holiday. Even those of us who know the real meaning of Christmas have to fight against the tendency to get caught up in the busyness and frenzy. In the midst of all the marketing, Christ becomes an afterthought and frequently gets left away in the manger. We are so busy shopping for gifts, preparing and hosting dinners or get togethers, writing and sending cards, that we forget the greatest gift that God, the Father, has given us- the gift of our Lord Jesus Christ.

As it is, the world we live in makes it a challenge to remember Christ even though it is Christmas.

The commercialism of Christmas is a major distraction. During the Christmas season we are bombarded with advertisements on television, in newspapers and magazines. The noise, glitter, shopping hype and commercialism make it easy for us to take our eyes off the true meaning of Christmas and also Christ. Don’t get me wrong! I do love this season, and with all the lights and festivities, I find this time of the year magical. I love celebrating Christmas with family and friends but there is much more to it than just that. I want to make it meaningful. I want Jesus to be the focus this Christmas. I want my family, friends and neighbors to know what the day and celebration is really about. They won’t hear it at school, colleges, or see it in commercials. They will know from us if we live and show an example to this new generation.

If you carefully observe society today you will find very few who know the true meaning of Christmas. Christmas celebration has become a fashion or decoration competition in the society. Most of the people think that by cleaning and decorating their homes, wearing new clothes, organizing parties, helping the needy, attending church and fellowship, singing carols, etc., Christmas can be observed. These are secondary things and unimportant obligations in the Lord’s sight. If we think and practice these as if they were the ends in themselves, then we are wrong. Celebration of Christ’s birth has to mean much more than all these.

I want to draw your attention to the first Christmas more than 2000 years ago. Our Lord Jesus Christ was born among his own people, but they were not ready to receive Him, nor believed or accepted Him. In spite of more than 300 prophecies (Isaiah.7:14, Micah 5:2,) about Jesus in the Old Testament, no one was ready to receive Jesus! There was no room for Him, either physical or in the hearts of the people. “He came to that which was his own, but his own did not receive him.” (John 1:11). If we compare the way we are celebrating Christmas, we can easily tell how different it is from the first unprepared Christmas. Will our lives, our families be prepared to receive Him this Christmas or will we still continue to repeat the same blunder of telling the Son of the Most High God that there is no room for Him in our lives, this year too?   

1 John 5:11, 12 says, “And this is the testimony: that God has given us eternal life, and this life is in His Son. He who has the Son has life; he who does not have the Son of God does not have life”.  We cannot celebrate Christmas meaningfully if we do not have Christ in our lives. Jesus came to give us salvation, which is eternal life, so then, how can our celebration of Christ’s birthday be complete without Christ in our heart? The Holy Bible says, “For God so loved the world that He gave His one and only Son, that whoever believes in Him shall not perish but have eternal life.” (John 3:16). Christmas should remind us of the matchless gift ever that Our Heavenly Father gave us-our Lord and Savior, Jesus. God sending His Son to our rescue is a gift that words cannot fully comprehend. Christ came that we may have eternal life. John 1:12 says, “Yet to all who did receive Him, to those who believed in His name, He gave the right to become children of God”. Dear friends when you receive Christ, you will be “Born again to eternal life with Christ”. That is the real purpose for which Jesus came to this world:  to give you and me a new everlasting life. (Is. 53:5). John 3:3 also says, “I tell you the truth, unless you are born again, you cannot see the Kingdom of God”. Unless we are saved and born again, the celebration of Christ’s birth will be meaningless. Let us open our hearts and receive the most precious gift from our heavenly Father, Jesus Himself.

Having received the gift of eternal life through the Son, should we also not present our Lord and Savior a gift as we celebrate His birthday? What gift could we possibly give to Him? There is no gift as precious to the Lord as one Soul! The best gift that we can therefore offer our Savior is our hearts, our lives, our total trust. As you give Jesus your trust, make Him first in your life, give what you value to His work, and bring other people to Him. You are giving Him gifts far more valuable than the ones the Wise Men brought.

So then, can we make this Christmas meaningful? Definitely! We can start by making choices that matter, choosing not to allow the urgent things that characterize the Christmas season to crowd out the important values that signify what Christmas is really about; choosing to build, nourish and cherish those we love in new ways. Christmas is “God with Us”. Christmas is Christ becoming man so that He might “give His life a Ransom for many”. Christ came to give Himself for others. Let us reevaluate our priorities in light of our relationship with Him; recommit our lives to grow in Him. Let us remember that Jesus is the reason for the Season. This Christmas, let us celebrate and share the love of Christ in our lives, our families and in our churches, for Christ Himself is what truly matters!
 
“Degree of Thought is a weekly community column initiated by Tetso College in partnership with The Morung Express. Degree of Thought will delve into the social, cultural, political and educational issues around us. The views expressed here do not reflect the opinion of the institution. Tetso College is a NAAC Accredited UGC recognised Commerce and Arts College. For feedback or comments please email: admin@tetsocollege.org”. 

Monday, 15 December 2014

Our History Matters - AnatoliRochill, Asst. Professor, Dept. of History



Today we celebrate the final day of the Hornbill Festival 2014. The 10 day long festival is a significant reminder of the history that has shaped our land and our people, telling us and the world that our past cannot be forgotten. History, is an important part of our lives, whether it pertains to an individual, a society or a country. It is not just a textbook or a subject that we have been made to study, but a truth that helps us understand the way towards creating a betterfuture for ourselves. 

Our History Matters



Does history matter? If it does, then what is history? History simply means study of the past that is significant and true. It is derived from the Greek word ‘Historia’ meaning ‘enquiry’ or ‘knowledge acquired by investigation’.Francis Bacon used the term Historia in the late 16th century when he wrote about ‘Natural History’. The word history first entered the English Language in the year 1390. History is a continuous, systematic narrative of past events as relating to a particular people, country, period, person, etc. which took place in the history of mankind It includes an account of the rise and fall of a nation as well as of other great changes which have affected the political, social, religious, cultural and economic conditions of the human race. According to G K Chesterton, ‘History is a hill or a high point of vantage, from which alone men see the town in which they live or the age in which they are’. Charles Johnson has rightly said that, ’you can’t escape history, or the needs and neuroses you’ve picked up like layers and layers on your teeth’.

Herodotus, a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century was known as the ‘Father of History’. He was born on 1484 BC at Halicarnassus in Turkey and died at the age of 59 years in 1425 BC. He was the first historian known to collect his materials systematically and critically, and then to arrange them into ahistoriographical narrative. Historiography is a study of historical writings. It refers to both the studies of the methodology of historians and the development of history as a discipline, and also to a body of historical work on a particular subject. The historiography of a specific topic covers how historians have studied that topic using particular sources, techniques, and theoretical approaches.The book called ‘The Histories’ was his masterpiece and the only work he is known to have produced. He helped form the foundation for the modern study of human history.

History is divided into three periods or ages namely: ancient, medieval and modern. We study the culture, religion, polity, socio, etc. of the various periods and how it developed over the passage of time.  During the ancient period, people wandered from place to place in search of food. They were unaware of the use of metals; had no idea of civilisation and probably did not know how to produce fire. Their implements were of rough stones, mainly of quartzite. They lived on the fruit of trees and wild animals. In the later period they started to cultivate land, domesticate animals, built houses; they buried or burnt their dead bodies, used skins of animals as clothes and learned to cook their food. People of this age started to live a settled live which results in the rise of towns and cities and development of trade and commerce which also marked the beginning of the medieval period. During this period, there was proper town planning and people were engaged in internal (trade within the country) and external trade (outside the country) practices. With the advancement of science and technology the modern era began.

Ancient influences have helped spawn variant interpretations of the nature of history which have evolved over the centuries and continue to change today. The modern study of history is wide-ranging and includes the study of certain topical or thematic elements of historical investigation. The people of the past are those who came before us and it is interesting to see how some of the thoughts, attitudes, beliefs and practices of today can differ so drastically from those throughout history. Ancient cultures devoted much time and effort to teaching their children family history for they thought that the past will help the child to understand who they really are. However, modern society has turned its back on the past.We prefer to define ourselves in terms of where we are going and not where we come from. Our ignorance of the past is not the result of lack of information but of indifference.

We no longer believe that history matters but I should say that history does matter as there is a sayinghe who controls the past controls the future. Allen Nerins has rightly defined history as, ‘a bridge connecting the past with the present and pointing the road to future’. In life, we face situations where we have to make crucial decisions.It is the past knowledge that is going to help us make the right choice. For instance, when we go to visit a doctor for any kind of sickness, before beginning with the session we are asked to fill out an information sheet of our medical history. Some of these forms are so detailed, asking questions that require information from rarely accessed memory banks. Why are we asked such a question? It will help the doctor to understand the accurate picture of our health. Our health is heavily influenced by the past like heredity, past behaviour, and past experiences, etc. If our history were not that important then we will not be questioned, but we are, and this is why we need to give importance to our past to tell us how we should move ahead into the future.
 
“Degree of Thought is a weekly community column initiated by Tetso College in partnership with The Morung Express. Degree of Thought will delve into the social, cultural, political and educational issues around us. The views expressed here do not reflect the opinion of the institution. Tetso College is a NAAC Accredited UGC recognised Commerce and Arts College. For feedback or comments please email: admin@tetsocollege.org”. 

Friday, 28 November 2014

Welcome to the Semester System - Amar Ranjan Dey | Assistant Professor, Department of Commerce



College students all over Nagaland are now appearing for their End Semester Exams. So, what really is the semester system? We need to realize that the introduction of the Semester System by Nagaland University in 2009 for the Undergraduate Programmeis very different from the Annual System, which we had been following for years since High School. Teachers now follow a different grading system and teaching methodology that could change the scope of education, if implemented correctly. That is why, it is important that teachers, students and parents clearly understand more about the NU Undergraduate Semester System.

Welcome to the Semester System


The semester system is becoming a very proactive system as it engages both the faculty and students throughout the year in academic activity. In a semester system, student has more advantages; since examinations are helda few months from the start of the session, which also means what is studied will remain fresh in their brain.; The syllabus load will be less; And different topics need not be combined in the same paper;

Higher Education today dependson quality for its advancement.If we look at the education system over time, it has been almost consistent all over the world. Through advancement and exposure to new concepts, educationists investigate possibilities to teach texts in innovative ways. There are a number of good ideas, proposals and suggestions for reforms and changes in the educational system. The aim should be to not just pick one of them but rather, have a comprehensive attitude and approach to implement those that are most effective. Therefore, introduction of semester can be said to be a product of this. The semester system has been introduced in the undergraduate curriculumin affiliated colleges in the university with effect from 2009 onwards. Teachers, students and guardians who were used to the practice and idea of the annual system were slightly hesitant in its implementation. Especially in schools, the students and teachers are used to rigorous work, and are compelled to study almost the whole year with two or three major breaks as vacations in the bi-yearly or tri-yearly examinations. The introduction of this system can be evaluated as part of the consistency of the school years.

A semester system is an academic term denoting the duration of a programme or course. Usually, an academic semester is divided in two parts or terms in a year. Literally, semester means six month period. In India this six month system is generally followed. The Central universities in India have long been following this for quite sometime. At present, the under graduate colleges in Nagaland too follow   the semester system, which has many advantages that I would like to highlight below.

The main objective is to broaden the outlook of the students and instil in them a sense of confidence and responsibility. It orients the students with different forms, style and thoughts in other parts of the country and beyond. The students are continuously evaluated throughout the duration of a semester which keeps them more alert.Unit or class tests act as model tests for the final examination. A detailed account of the student’s progress can be produced in semester. It also allows greater interaction with teachers and the students through presentations and discussions. . Students are now assessed not only on the basis of final examination that used to be at the end of each year anymore. Results are now declared on grade basis with credit points in each semester rather than on division basis i.e., Grade O whichmeans marks between 80-100, Grade A which means marks between 70-79.99, Grade B which means marks between 60-69.99, Grade C which falls between 55 – 59.99, Grade D for 50 – 54.99 marks, Grade E for 45 – 49.99 marks and Grade F (Fail) for marks less than 44.99.Students now have more opportunity to secure higher marks than the annual system, due to the marking scheme which entails 30 marks for internal tests and 70 marks for the final exam or semester end-exam.

We find that most nations of the world today are constantly switching to the semester system. It is estimated that the famous global economics of the world today are USA, China and India. In the world of competitions, one of the largest is education. We find that China is almost replacing USA in this area too, apart from fighting hand in hand in occupying the global markets. In fact, trying to occupy the markets in the world of education is actually occupying the largest share of intellectual position in the global education ladder. To compete and win, the rules should be the same. Following the footsteps of the important nations of the world, India, without wastingany more time wants to fall in the same system, which also means Nagaland is a contender too.Introduction of the semester system in Nagaland, I believe, might help in increasingthe quality of education. This system has already been used rather successfully in professional courses like B.B.A, B.Com and Journalism taught at the under graduate level at some universities across the country. Despite some initial resistance, there is growing appeal to the semester system. It is a sign of encouragement to the academic world. The human resources lie in the youth under the guidance of the teachers. The hard work and integrity of the teacher is proved too in this new experimentation. It does not mean that theannual system is worthless system, however,experimentation with something new is a habit with human beings to create something better in competing with the other markets around the world.The policy maker of our education system thus needs a forward looking strategy, which could safeguard our interests at the global level. It needs to organize itself in such a manner that it makes our student community competent and skilled to succeed in an independent world.
 
“Degree of Thought is a weekly community column initiated by Tetso College in partnership with The Morung Express. Degree of Thought will delve into the social, cultural, political and educational issues around us. The views expressed here do not reflect the opinion of the institution. Tetso College is a NAAC Accredited UGC recognised Commerce and Arts College. 
For feedback or comments please email: admin@tetsocollege.org”.  

Tuesday, 18 November 2014

R.I.P PRIVACY - Anjan Behera, Asst. Professor, Department of English



“My life had changed overnight. No longer could I ignore Whatsapp messages and pretend that my battery had been down… thanks to Whatsapp’s silent update - the double blue tick.” With new apps and social networking sites dominating our lives, how much of our personal space can we really call ‘private’?
R.I.P PRIVACY

My life had changed overnight. No longer could I ignore Whatsapp messages and pretend that my battery had been down, or that my phone was hanging more than Atal Behari Vajpayee’s speech. Gone were the days when I could blame poor BSNL or Airtel networks for my snobbishness, and escape the tyranny of responding to dumb messages like some godforsaken puppy’s image, or the most offensive racist and sexist jokes. My etiquette is now under strict scrutiny, thanks to Whatsapp’s silent update- the double blue tick. A single tick means the message is sent, double tick shows the message is received by the recipient’s handset, and a double blue tick means the message has been read. In a matter of seconds, our privacy had been violated, and social media had reached yet another milestone.
Whatsapp Messenger is a proprietary, cross-platform instant messaging subscription service for smartphones and selected feature phones that uses the internet for communication. Simply put, it is a messenger app that allows text messaging as well as sending images, video, and audio media messages as well as their location using integrated mapping features. Whatsapp Inc. was founded in 2009 by Brian Acton and Jan Koum, both former employees of Yahoo!. The company is based in Mountain View, California and employs 55 people.
Whatsapp revolutionized instant messaging by automatically adding users from one’s contact list. Its hassle free usage and minimal internet requirement added on to its advantages that made it the most popular IM app. Whatsapp in India is free because payment for it requires Google Money, an app for money transactions which is still unavailable in India. The app auto-renews itself at the end of the subscription period. As of October 2014, Whatsapp has crossed 70 million monthly active users in India, which is 10% of its total user base.
Facebook and other social networking sites freely access our albums, messages, call history, camera, GPS information and contacts. This means that even our phone is no longer private and that is a genuine problem! Comparatively, Whatsapp is a preferred app since it did not display information about whether messages had been read. It also had, and still has the option of blocking out people not in the contact list of one’s phone to check one’s profile picture, time last logged in, and profile name. One can also block users. However, all of this has changed with the recent acquisition of the app by Facebook Inc. With more of our private lives on display, I can’t help but wonder whatever happened to privacy?
Whatsapp isn’t the only application to be blamed. Apps like Instagram, Facebook, Hike Messenger, WeChat, and others have given us a chance to display our private lives on the broad spectrum. Instagram made everyone a self-declared photographer, where photography was mainly, if not always, that of a dish about to be gulped down. Mundane life becomes an eventful life. The hashtags and geotagging would supply information about where and when the picture had been taken pinpointing the exact location of the user. Facebook also allowed geotagging of status messages and posts. In 2013, the New York Police Department (NYPD) attributed social networking to several cases of tracking down criminals and missing people.
But perhaps these apps and sites are not the sole culprit. I mean let’s face it, I created a Facebook profile, I shared my photographs and locations for the world to see, I allowed display of my content to strangers. Do I then really want privacy? Psychologist Andrew Thorne of the Massachusetts Psychiatry Institute is of the opinion that ‘likes’ and ‘comments’ on Facebook and other social networking sites provide constant and instant gratification. “It is like someone patting you on the back, saying ‘job well done’.” And let’s face it; we all do appreciate a little bit of flattery. Is that why we display our lives for everyone to see? It is hard to admit, but we do find happiness being scrutinized positively by others. But another side of this argument is that social networking is now a trend, a basic custom set for us by the postmodern nouveau riche youth dominated society. Can we afford to not participate in this sharing of information and be classified as the networking subaltern?
Perhaps then privacy is a thing of the past. We stand on the brink of a new era. If history is any indicator, we have already been allowing technology to dictate our lives. There was a time when we could share images on social media and keep it limited to a handful of people. However, with every update, Facebook automatically relaxes policies, Instagram keeps my images public, Twitter forces me to read paid content, games force me to pay for upgrades despite having purchased a working game. Ads pop up based on my browsing history suggesting me content I didn’t even know I wanted to access. Google pops up search results based on browsing history, while Facebook suggests pages based on the groups I belong to. This means our entire online activity is actually being recorded. Recorded by whom? Why exactly? How much of data is actually recorded? No one knows.

The New York Daily Newspaper on 16th November 2014 reported that a man in Saudi Arabia was granted a divorce because his wife ignored his messages on Whatsapp. The transcript of their chat history was submitted as evidence in court where the blue ticks betrayed the “innocent” testimony of the wife. What is of interest to me here is the fact that laws are considering and even accepting ignored IM messages as legitimate grounds for a divorce. Are we starting to take IMing and Social Networking a little too seriously? Our ancestors would probably sit under trees and gossip about which girl is having an affair with which boy, and which wife is spending more time on her makeup than her family. We all do the exact same, except the medium is now a polished and modern app whose usage puts us in the category of the tech-savvy elite. What constitutes as privacy is no longer apparent, and all we can do is wait and watch as the world slips into this new era where the internet knows more about us than we do ourselves.

Wednesday, 5 November 2014

Conducive Environments for Learning - Mhabeni Tungoe, Assistant Professor, Education Department



The all India Swach Bharat Abhiyan campaign that was launched on 2nd October sent a message across the nation about the importance of cleanliness and protecting the environment around us. It is true that our environment largely shapes the kind of individuals we become. So whether it is aimed at building toilets to maintain hygiene and sanitation or better educational institutions to raise the quality of education, we must strive to create a conducive environment around us.

Conducive Environments for Learning


Environment plays a very important role in developing the life of an individual. Psychologically speaking, environment refers to all those stimuli which an individual faces from the moment of fertilization till death. Evidently, under it are included all those things that somehow or other, affect an individual’s development except his genes. Genes provide various organs in order to show different behavior and the environment develops these organs. It is often said that a particular individual’s environment is good and bad referring to geographical, rural, urban and cultural. If we refer to environment in the psychological sense, this type of reference to environment is incomplete. Psychologically, environment of two individuals are not similar. For instance, two blood relation brothers aged ten and fifteen years are present at a time in a room under similar environment. In this situation, so many differences come in their individual environment, which on receiving the same situation, the responses of the two brothers may vary. It will depend on their past experience based on what they perceive or learn from the present condition or what type of responses they may make towards it. Despite being brought up in an apparently similar environment, difference in the likes, abilities and emotional susceptibilities may be found even in brothers and sisters. This is because the environment of two individuals is never the same. Due to their individual nature, persons receive different responses from others and they also exhibit different responses towards their environment.

Generally, environment is divided into two categories – natural and social. By natural environment we refer to all things and forces in and around the earth that influence a person. There is a clear distinction in the way of living, complexion and shape etc. of a person living in different environments. Human beings, with the help of various faculties, have succeeded in building a social environment for himself. This social environment is as old as human civilization itself. In this environment comes the civilization inherited from forefathers and the present human society. By civilization inherited from forefathers it means the environment which the person sees around himself on acquiring consciousness in the society i.e. language, arts, religion, constitution, means of communication, wealth, luxury etc. Human society refers to those institutions which human beings have established for their own protection and security; institutions like educational institutions, home, village, city, town, and other numerous organizations.

Education begins from birth and continues till death: it is an important human activity. There is no boundary for education. Educational implications are rich and varied. It includes the process of learning, knowledge and experiences acquired by a person in his life time. All the learning, knowledge and experiences gained by an individual are through environment. Among the environment factors in learning, educational institutions in the form of school, college and university are worth mentioning. Educational institutions are considered as the nucleus around which the society resolves. It is the social institution that set up the society to serve its ends. The environment of an educational institution, thus, plays a major role in molding the ideas, habits, and attitudes of the students to produce physically strong, mentally alert, emotionally stable, culturally sound, socially efficient and well balanced personality. The environment of the class room, physical facilities, as well as the campus does have a great deal to contribute to the total success of the educational institution. The environment of educational institution involves human resources and material resources. The human resources are the people involved in the teaching learning process - head of the institution, administration staff, teachers, students and all other individuals contributing in the institution. The material resources are the physical facilities of the institutional environment. Beautiful surroundings generate a congenial atmosphere for its success. In any educational institution, if the administration is strong and implementing the rules and regulations well, then we find a well discipline environment inside the campus of that institution, but if the administration is weak, the environment will be total chaos and it will largely affect the process of learning. Learning is the key aspect in education. To give over all learning experience to the student’s environment is a necessity. Learning, as we know, is considered an activity which develops habits, knowledge and attitude in individuals (in any respect, good or bad) and in return, influences his behavior and experiences. It is very important to create congenial and educative environment to achieve three domains of learning objectives-

1. Cognitive domain (Intellectual development)-Cognitive learning refers to the acquisition of problem-solving abilities by use of intelligent and conscious thought.

2. Affective domain (Emotional development) - The affective domain includes factors such as student motivation, attitudes, perceptions, values, and emotions.

3. Psychomotor domain (Physical development) - Psychomotor learning is demonstrated by physical skills such as movement, coordination, manipulation, dexterity, and strength.

The environment of an educational institution should make students establish the contact with truth and to take the decision accordingly, facilitating students to become the best worker and the best thinker,  helping them to understand the ground reality and adjust in a better way, enabling them to gain new experiences and  perform constructive tasks.

In the educational process, the environment of the institution plays a key role to fulfill the overall objectives of education.

Carol B. Hillman -“A positive learning climate in a school for young children is a composite of many things.  It is an attitude that respects children. It is a place where children receive guidance and encouragement from the responsible adults around them. It is an environment where children can experiment and try out new ideas without fear or failure.  It is an atmosphere that builds children’s self-confidence so they dare to take risks.  It is an environment that nurtures a love of learning”.
 
“Degree of Thought is a weekly community column initiated by Tetso College in partnership with The Morung Express. Degree of Thought will delve into the social, cultural, political and educational issues around us. The views expressed here do not reflect the opinion of the institution. Tetso College is a NAAC Accredited UGC recognised Commerce and Arts College. For feedback or comments please email: admin@tetsocollege.org”.

Wednesday, 29 October 2014

Culture and Rural and Urban Nagas - Heninle Magh, Asst. Professor, Dept. of Commerce


“Culture is the intersection of people and life itself. It’s how we deal with life, love, death, birth, disappointment. All of that is expressed in culture.” Wendell Pierce.


Culture and Rural and Urban Nagas


Culture defines who a person was or is, in a society. It resides in the heart and soul of the individual. Without it, and the comparative choice it entails, society is in for a chaotic subsistence. Every society is set apart with a collective quality and diverse set of culture, show casting the history of their ways of life that came into being; the present, which is the reflection of the past with the influence of the progressing world; the future, for which we are living a history today. The basic component of culture in any society lies in its language, customs, and religion etc. The knack to pass on the information across generations by means other than genetic exchange is a unique gift that we human possess, and that gift is the reason human beings are able to record, learn, and know the facts and purpose of our existence.

Every civilization undergoes transformation and progress, a step at the time, but the arrival of the colonial force and the advent of the Christian Missionaries to our Hills transformed us, and hurled us many steps forward at a go In the beginning of the previous century we were head-hunters, hunting napes of person from other villages, to free their soul, as was believed then, but by the end of the century we were a totally new entity, which is providential and, as such, the society that we are now.

When we imagine culture in our land, an image of half-naked men with spears and machete lining up, singing war-cry in unison, dancing in a well-choreographed manner comes to mind. Nagas in general are blessed with assorted groups of people with rich cultural heritage, and culture, as discussed, comprises of all the different components that makes a society what it is. Culture does not imply only the past, but the present days and ways of life. The culture of Nagas would be characterized by the languages and dialects that we speak, customs and traditions we observe and practice, literatures and religious beliefs, and so on. So when we visualize, the beauty of these multitudes of society, it is like a poem and a sight to behold.

Discussing about culture always involves the need of preserving the same, which is the core of continuance of history. The varied life is celebrated throughout the year, by different tribes, and although it is almost an impossibility to live life like the way we celebrate – it is impractical to go to office dressed in our traditional attire-, nonetheless, it is good to know our roots, our present, and the future that we are headed toward. The technological advancement and progress of the society was making us, less aware of our traditional roots, but the generous overtures from Nagaland government, which need to be lauded, for they have brought the hues of the various tribes which is celebrated during the first week of December every year. Through this, the culture of Nagas is known world-wide, making the young Nagas aware of our identity. My wish, if I may, is that, in the years to come, the Nagas from other states and country be invited to the Hornbill Festival so it becomes a complete Naga Affair. The preservation of the past traditions and customs can also be retained by inoculating it into school curriculum so the youngsters can learn it from the early stage of their life.

The present day Nagas are broadly classified into two categories: the Rural Nagas and the Urban Nagas. Every individual belongs to a specific clan, village, area, etc. The rural Nagas encompass the majority of the population, whose main occupations are agriculture and farming and the Urban Nagas are those that reside in towns, holding government jobs or businesses. While it is not the case now, but back then, Nagas were known for our hardworking, bravery, honesty, and hospitality, etc. The current crops of Nagas, like any other society is an assortment of all these personalities and finding a person with all the qualities mentioned would be like finding a needle in the hays. The need of the hour is to go back to our roots, not practically, but psychologically and regain our past integrity.

The present young Nagas are a hybrid of the past and the present, with influence of western countries and neighboring developed Asian countries. The inner political and social conflict has taken its toll, such that, the young Nagas of the present generation are perplexed as to what the future hold. Nevertheless, there are many brave hearted youngsters that are making their presence known to the world, through their achievement. Unemployment, like anywhere is also one cross the Nagas bear, due to lack of proper infrastructural facilities. The lack of productive diversion has also led many  youths to the path of self-destruction, in the form of alcohol and drug abuse. The hard working trait of our forefathers need to be revived so that we start pulling up our socks and rely on Government jobs, but to believe in the dignity of labour, and overcome our frustration and helplessness.

To talk about modern society is to talk about the impact of the IT revolution and the impact it has on our society. Ours, not being a productive society, many youths after their studies goes to cities like Delhi, Bangalore, Mumbai, etc., to earn their livelihood, and return home with both the positive and negative trait, learned there. The point being, the wisdom that is within each of us should try to differentiate the good from the bad for a positive society. With social networking sites, the Nagas of today are no longer afraid of corruption or remain downtrodden, as was the Horticulture fiasco recently. Social networking sites like Facebook are playing a major role in invoking awareness in the youth of Nagaland. Popular blogs like The Naga Blog plays a crucial role in pressuring or exposing corruptions and injustice. The negative point, however, is the mismanagement of time for using such sites, especially from college and school going students, which need to be addressed by their respective guardians or parents.

Paulo Coelho’s words sums it all “Culture makes people understand each other better. And if they understand each other better in their soul, it is easier to overcome the economic and political barriers. But first they have to understand that their neighbor is, in the end, just like them, with the same problems, the same questions.” Let us all play an equal part in the cultural development for a progressive and harmonious society.
 
“Degree of Thought is a weekly community column initiated by Tetso College in partnership with The Morung Express. Degree of Thought will delve into the social, cultural, political and educational issues around us. The views expressed here do not reflect the opinion of the institution. Tetso College is a NAAC Accredited UGC recognised Commerce and Arts College. For feedback or comments please email: admin@tetsocollege.org”. 

Sunday, 26 October 2014

Balancing Act: Work and Play - Mughato. A. Aye, Class 11 (Arts)



Be it a working professional, a student or a stay-at-home mom, all of us are under immense pressure to perform to the best of our abilities. But every so often, even our professional, academic and domestic work requires a break into other recreational and extra-curricular activities to help us find the right balance between work and play. For students, we often mistake a good academic performance as the only measure of success. However, as educationists believe, true education is one that encompasses all round development in order to achieve one’s full potential. Even our children believe so, as this week’s feature reveals. Class 11 student Mughato A. Aye, winner of the Autumn Fest Essay Competition advocates the importance of extra-curricular activities in the lives of all students today.

Balancing Act: Work and Play

All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy, reads the proverb that carries a lot of weight. Students study a lot, trying hard to score well or get maximum marks in the exams and are rewarded by being promoted to the next class. That is the usual practice. But is the studying of printed and written material the only important thing for the all-round development of students? A student may be really good at scoring high marks in the exams but that does not guarantee that he will be able to speak properly or fluently, and if he is not able to speak properly or fluently, it shows that the student is not fully developed to face certain hurdles of life, and this problem may get magnified in the future and cause major problems for the student. There are other cases like some students being extremely good in studies but not interested in sports and proven to be physically inactive. Education is about the all-round development of the students, which means students should excel both physically and mentally. Studies and academic performance of the students are important, but the students must also be aware of what’s happening in the real world.


Exams and results are all part of education, but extra-curricular activities are important as they help in building a child’s personality, which is the necessary requirement of today’s fast and competitive era. Extra-curricular activities such as sports, debate, extempore, quiz, science and art exhibitions held in schools and colleges help the students by enabling them to develop their personality in an all-round manner. It also helps them by enabling them to handle various challenges, tasks and situations. Different extra-curricular activities help the students in different ways  by making the students think out of the box, learn team work, quick thinking and quick actions, match up to the competition and work under pressure. All these exercises and skills are useful in the future when the students take up jobs and deal with various daily challenges.  A student who is active in extra-curricular activities develops certain attributes like competitive spirit, co-operation, team leading and people management. All these qualities improve the student’s confidence and create a sense of achievement in him or her. Extra-curricular activities help the students keep fit and develop both physically and mentally.

Extra-curricular activities help the students learn new things, for instance, it brings different people with different culture, backgrounds, attitudes, traditions, etc. together. In such cases, all these different people become friends and exchange of views take place. This enables the students to learn new and different things enriching their knowledge and making them more knowledgeable. As mentioned, it is not only the exchange of ideas but even friendships are being forged and new relationships take place. This increases sociability which is an important attribute in the process of the development of the students’ personality. People’s ability to make friends or to become part of a group fuels confidence and this creates an atmosphere of liability among the people. Thus, sociability increases the confidence of the students.

Extra-curricular activities help the students to develop their intellectual self. It also helps the students to develop their talents. Extra-curricular activities are an absolute essential part of a students’ academic life. It is a good breather for the students from regular classroom teaching and helps to refresh their minds and concentrate better. Extra-curricular activities provide the students with an opportunity to take part in activities and areas depending upon their talents, skills, and interests. It is a way for the students to express themselves through the things they are best at.

Thus, students must not focus entirely only on their academic life, but also take part in extra-curricular activities. A student whose academic performance is poor may have the potential to excel in other fields. Education is all about the human’s physical, mental, aesthetic, and spiritual self. Extra-curricular activities provide various platforms for the students to improve themselves in different things and in different ways. Socializing with different people enables the students to gain ideas and knowledge about a variety of things. Extra-curricular activities build up, in a student, the qualities of working as a team. It helps the students to learn how to work as a ‘unit’ and be a team player. It is true that students have many talents which must be developed, and one of the best ways of showcasing them is through the organization of such extra-curricular activities.
(Winning Essay of the Autumn Fest Essay Competition 2014)
 
“Degree of Thought is a weekly community column initiated by Tetso College in partnership with The Morung Express. Degree of Thought will delve into the social, cultural, political and educational issues around us. The views expressed here do not reflect the opinion of the institution. Tetso College is a NAAC Accredited UGC recognised Commerce and Arts College. For feedback or comments please email: admin@tetsocollege.org”.

Thursday, 16 October 2014

From Literature to Globalization - K. Musom Khiamniungan, 3rd Semester, English Honors


We may be a Naga, an assamese, an Indian or an American. Regardless of our nationality we are all connected by the very fact that we are all human.  Likewise, diverse areas like literature, creativity, career, peace and globalization are also linked directly and indirectly. Some student studying literature may wonder how reading dickens may influence society and bring peace. The student below tells us how literature can affect minds and ultimately society. 

From Literature to Globalization


All things have a connection to one another. They are either linked directly or indirectly creating a type of network. Such as the human body that consists of various organs that are connected directly or indirectly through other organs. This connection or link in the human body allows a person to function in an orderly and normal manner.All these organs have their own role to play, fulfilling the body activities and needs of an individual. Likewise, literature, creativity, career, peace and globalization are all linked to one another directly or indirectly. We cannot deny the fact that their existence is like a spider’s web. The outcome of one is the product of the other. Just as a spider’s web is connected, built in a systematic manner, literature, creativity, career, peace and globalization are also linked though not systematically.

Literature is any form of written work and can consist of poetry, prose, drama, and short stories. Through poetry, prose, drama, and short stories, literature can be an instrument to pass on culture, customs, beliefs and traditions. For instance, Charles Dickens’ ‘Oliver Twist’ is a novel where the picture of society is depicted. He talks about the degradation of society, about corruption, exploitation of the lower class people. The novel gives us a true picture of the society during the Victorian era. Likewise,even Romantic writers like Jane Austen depicted the society of the Romantic era through herworks.Various works of literature can depict or depicts society of that era.

In order to create literature, one cannot simply dip the pen in the ink-pot and write. One needs creativity, a strong imaginative power and skill to paint down the ideas into literature. Creativity in the minds of the people has allowed them to achieve things in life.  Creativity can be seen in many early writers like William Shakespeare, John Keats, William Wordsworth, Geoffrey Chaucer, Christopher Marlow, and modern writers like Jane Austen, Charles Dickens andothers. All these people created work in such a way that their works influenced people. Their influence did not stop just in the minds of the people. Infact, their works created a whole new idea changing the face of society.

Creativity is the ability to be imaginative, to come up with something new; it can either be of ideas or inventions. Anyone can try to write but only a creative person can create a literary work that has life. A person’s creativity can make one’s work come to life. Though not real, there is a feeling and presence of life. Creative minds, thus, brings new ideas and concepts, and with these ideas and concepts, a new being is born. Thus, creativity is a means to create literature that can influence people and bring about change. A creative man who propagates that woman should not go to college would not be appreciated even from the wildest nomads of all but if he uses his creative literature for promoting and protecting human ideals (i.e. peace), then every individual will appreciate his work irrespective of his political or territorial unit.

It can be said that the most creative person is the one who has the strongest imaginative power and this strong imaginative power can enable a person to create a career for oneself.Career is what one pursues to make a living out of it.  One cannot pursue a career in which he has no talent or creativity. Thus, creativity in an individual enables and allows him to paint down the ideas that he has in mind into works of literature. When these ideas and concepts are painted down into literary works, we cannot deny that one cannot make a career out of it. Many writers, both professional and unprofessional  make a living out of it.

Literature has played a major role in the spread of peace, through the ages. Various writers have contributed to society through their works on peaceful existence. Great man like Gandhiji had been inspired by writers like Tolstoy and David Thoreau to promote non-violence through which India achieved its independence. Globalization is an end because no writer wants to confine his work to himself. Literature, creativity, career, peace and globalization are thus inter-related though not systematically. A person writes a piece of literature through his creative mind and thus he is a good writer by career. Career is nothing but prolonged pursuing and building one’s occupation for sustenance. This piece of literature conceptualized a means of peace which simply means absence of war, where security, law and order prevail, and if this conceptualization of peace is successfully implanted in the present war-torn area, then this globalization and the relationship between the five terms are well established.

Every man of literature wants his work to be usefuland progressive for humanity. Easterine Kire, Temsula Ao and other writers from our Naga society has contributed to society in numerous ways through their works making the world a global village. Their literary work has connected us and the world making it seem like a tiny world.


Wednesday, 8 October 2014

The Sound of ‘Naga’ Music - Buhiu B. Lam Khiamniungan, B.A. 5th Sem, English Hon.







Recently, there has been a slew of music videos being aired on Vh1 by local artists like Alo Wanth, Shalo Kent and more on the way like Purple Fusion etc. They are just some of the musically successful and talented bands that have made a name for themselves in the music industry, both at the national and international level. Music is a talent that Nagas have been naturally gifted with from the time of our forefathers, which just shows that with a lot of hard work and dedication our Nagas have the potential to go very far ahead.

The Sound of ‘Naga’ Music


Music is an essential ingredient of Naga culture. Our ancestors have been great lovers of 
music. Folk or traditional music is the music that the Nagas are rooted in. Since time 
immemorial, music has been an important asset to our culture. In the past folks learned 
songs and use of different musical instruments from elderly persons in the Morung or 
dormitory. Some of the indigenous musical instruments of the Nagas are the bamboo 
mouth-organ, the cup-violin, the bamboo flute, the trumpet, the drum etc. The songs 
including the musical instruments were sung and played mainly during festivals, feasts, 
ceremonies, funerals, victory in war etc.

The coming of Christianity is depicted as the turning point of music in Nagaland. The western missionaries opposed the use of folk songs as it was associated with the spirit of worship and rituals. The translated western hymnals were introduced and this led to the decline of folk music in many parts of the state, although not in totality. However, as a result of Western influence, church music gained popularity.

Music is also considered as the replacement of sounds of bullet and bombs in Nagaland. The hills of Nagaland were once filled with the sounds of crying and wailing, but with the introduction of music all those were replaced by the sounds of various forms of songs and music.

Today, the Naga youths take music very seriously. The birth of new artists, musicians and bands are witnessed everyday with some even making it to the international level. Some of the successful bands of Nagaland could be Alobo Naga And The Band (winner of 2012 Best Indian Act at MTV Europe Music Awards), Divine Connection (winner of MTV’s Rock,2010), Zowe Madrigal (The only neo-classical male voice group in the country led by Nise Meruno), Tetseo Sisters, Abiogenisis, Purple Fusion, etc.
In the year 2004, Nagaland came up with the idea of the Music Task Force (MTF) which aimed at creating music industry in the state and making music a profession. Very true to its aim, the MTF was able to elevate music to a new level and hence, it is the main pillar of development of music in Nagaland. The Handshake Concerts, The Hornbill Rock Beat Contest, The Naga Orpheus Hunt (Naga Idol) and other singing sensations are some of the proceeding projects under the Music Task Force.

In addition, the other institutions responsible for the development and promotion of music in Nagaland include‘The Nagaland Conservatory of Music’(headed by LipokmarTzudir and James Shikiye Swu), Hope Center, Mountain Music Academy, Music Awards of Nagaland (MAN, institute by Native Trax Society), Backyard Buzz, Indihut,. etc.

Music is also a form of oral tradition in Nagaland. The oral tradition of the Nagas are spoken, sung and in voice form namely chants, prayers, folktales, folklores, laments, cries, etc. Every oral tradition is connected to festivals, feast and ceremonies, and plays a significant role making the occasion more delightful and pleasant. Unlike the folktales, folklores, myths and legends that are retold and recorded in the printed books, the folk songs are transmitted to younger generations through seminars or programs in a practical form.

With the influence of other cultures, Naga artists and musicians adapt to various genres of music and are experiencing music in different ways. In the case of folk music, it is reconstructed, modified or blended with other genres and used in a better and more elaborate manner. Folk songs are also performed as opera performances, choir ensemble, rock fusions, etc. The influence of western and Asian music is greatly seen in the styles of composition, tunes and music arrangements.

At present, Nagas have been introduced to almost every type of music: from folk to modern contemporary music. Music has become a central and also an essential part of our culture with which we identify ourselves. We have uncountable bands, musicians and artists and there are still many emerging everyday. Unlike the olden days where music was only sort of a personal contentment, now it has gained social importance. Music in Nagaland is at an unlimited high. It is more than an entertainment or hobby but a profession. To conclude, we can also state that music has taken to playing a greater role as a means of change, a channel of peace, public awareness, for show-casting our culture and most importantly, it is responsible for helping to keep the oral tradition alive.

(Abridged version of a seminar paper presented at the in-house English Dept seminar titled “A Symposium on Naga Culture”)

Rethinking the Issue of Migrants and Immigrants in Dimapur -David Hanneng, Assistant Professor, Department of History

image source- huffingtonpost.com Migration is a basic human nature with a desire for greener pastures. In the process, when one...