Tuesday, 29 March 2016

The Idea of Nagaland - Kvulo Lorin, Director-Administration




What is a nation? Is a nation the geographical boundaries that define its borders? Is a nation something that comes about because of its past? Do we call something a nation because of the soil and natural resources that are present in a piece of land? According to the Oxford dictionary, a nation is defined as “A large body of people united by common descent, history, culture, or language, inhabiting a particular state or territory”. The definition might be enough when we look at nations in general, but if we were to look at India or even the state of Nagaland, does that definition suffice?



The Idea of Nagaland


India is home to many different languages, cultures with varied history and states with their own potpourri of languages, food and origin stories. In spite of that, we call it a nation. A lot of the cultures and inhabitants of the people of different states are unique and do not actually have any shared history. Yet, all these people, cultures and languages are being brought under one umbrella called India. Taking these different characteristics of the different states, PM Modi has been aggressively promoting the idea of India internationally. It seems to have made a difference because in 2015, India's nation brand value has increased 32 per cent to $2.14 trillion, compared with $1.62 trillion last year according to a report by London-based Brand Finance. The USA still tops the list by a huge amount of $19.7 trillion followed by a distant China at $6.3 trillion. This is important. We are basically talking about “Soft power” – a word first coined in 1980 by Joseph Nye of Harvard University. It means the ability of a country to persuade others to do what it wants without force or coercion. In today’s world, it isn’t always going to be the country with the bigger army that wins wars, it’s the country with the bigger story. 

Taking the above into context, where does Nagaland as a state stand in terms of our brand value and soft power, within this country? When travelling outside our state, stereotypes of Naga people are common. Some of them positive, some negative and some so ridiculous it makes you wonder what planet they came from. A lot of people have asked me, do you play the guitar, do you know kung-fu, do you eat dog meat – no, I don’t play the guitar and have no musical talent; no I don’t know kung-fu but I can probably stop a fist with my face; no I don’t eat dog meat because I don’t like it. People love our colourful attire and fashion sense, have heard of the Hornbill Festival, know about our pathetic roads – our roads are becoming famous; but I was pleasantly surprised when I received a call from Tata Consultancy Services. The TCS representative stated that they found our Naga people to be very sincere and hardworking and wanted to conduct a campus hiring at Tetso College. Hearing that made me feel great to know that our people were making a mark in the corporate sector. The only sad thing was when I thought too hard and remembered the many other instances where I felt we aren’t exactly hard working – for example, the proxy employees, working hours of some government employees and other unethical practices like using our tribal connections to help non local business men avoid paying tax. 


However, companies like TCS hiring in Nagaland is a good thing even if its for their offices in the metros. While having to shift base sometimes becomes a deal breaker for our Nagas, I think we need to ask ourselves, "Do our Naga people actually want to live in Nagaland?" When we look at the way the population is distributed, the population is mainly concentrated in Kohima and Dimapur. But Nagaland is not just Kohima and Dimapur. And almost anyone with even a little connection to the big shots will exert pressure until they can be transferred to Kohima or Dimapur in case they are posted in interior parts of Nagaland. We also see quite a significant number going outside the state of Nagaland to study and now work. It is great to see our people doing well in so many different locations all over the world. 


Nagaland is jumping onto the globalisation band wagon and encountering both the benefits and also the dangers that accompany it. In the midst of all this is the fusion of cultures, east meeting west, western clothes and Indian attire coupled with western and Indian holidays along with our traditional Naga harvest festivals. Many are embracing it and maybe even more are also trying to fight or resist it. Change is scary and so is the unknown. It is usually more comfortable to hold on to the familiar past than confront an uncertain future. However, to build the future we can’t keep living in the past. Past glory cannot build or sustain any group of people or nation. 


Nations do not last forever. Powerful empires have conquered the world but only to wither away. Over the centuries we have seen many nations cease to exist and some new ones being born. One example is Yugoslavia which was born in 1918 only to disintegrate in 1992 to the smaller countries of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, Serbia, Macedonia, and Montenegro. We also see a lot of small countries deciding to merge with their larger neighbours like Newfoundland merging with Canada and Sikkim merging with India.

 

But, as asked in the beginning of this article, what is a nation? Is a nation the geographical boundary? According to Sadhguru, founder of the Isha foundation, "A nation is an ïdea." A nation needs to be a place we are proud to be a part of. A nation is a place where people want to be in otherwise it is basically an open prison to keep people from escaping the country. Past glory cannot build a nation and past atrocities cannot keep holding a nation back. If a nation is at war we must train our youth to fight. If a nation is corrupt than we need to train our youth values. If a nation is poor than its time we train our youth to work.

 

It is sad to see our leaders too dependent on external assistance and having to beg for funds all the time. I think if we want help, we also need to show them we know how to help ourselves. Can we solve our current mess of unpaid salaries, a Rs.1426.29 Cr Deficit Budget for Nagaland, a CAG report revealing fraudulent withdrawals, an unrealistic prohibition policy, an unauthorised taxation system from all sectors. Can we stop politics from overriding the interests of our state. It would be refreshing to see our apex NGO’s and the powers that matter actually stop the charade of playing in the middle all the time and take a concrete and definite stand to follow through. There are things that must be said and backed up by action. It will probably offend a few people but it’s the current problems of bad roads, electricity, pathetic infrastructure etc. that are of our own making and not anyone else’s. It’s time to acknowledge that and stop blaming Delhi, the past or anyone else and accept some of the responsibility. It’s time to prioritise and establish ourselves so that we are respected for our strengths, our work and ideals that the rest of the world respects. It is time to stand up and ask for help as an equal and not as a charity case. Maybe it is also time to realise that even though we are all different and unique, there are also similarities and common areas that have allowed people with different cultures and religions, languages and eating habits to work together, love and taste success. It is only because this is possible that we have global corporations spanning across countries, employing millions of people (Walmart employs 2.1 million), feeding them in their cafeterias and also helping these people to celebrate their differences.

 

“Degree of Thought is a weekly community column initiated by Tetso College in partnership with The Morung Express. Degree of Thought will delve into the social, cultural, political and educational issues around us. The views expressed here do not reflect the opinion of the institution. Tetso College is a NAAC Accredited UGC recognised Commerce and Arts College. The editors are Dr. Hewasa Lorin, Anjan Behera, Nivibo Yiki, Yanbeni Yanthan and Kvulo Lorin. For feedback or comments please email: dot@tetsocollege.org”.

 

 

 

 



 

Wednesday, 23 March 2016

Was Jesus’ Time Any Different From Ours?- Nivibo Y Sumi, Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology



As we observe Passion Week, we take a deeper look at the various nuances surrounding our understanding of Jesus’s times. This article delves into the grimmer aspects of the ground realities prevalent during those times and traces the corresponding socio-historical processes that circumscribed these events, thereby showing how the confluence of these factors came to define epic moments in world history. We also take a closer look at how Jesus was crucified because He was viewed as a threat to the existing power structure, because He questioned and challenged norms of society and exposed these as superfluous, corrupt, immoral and vile.

Was Jesus’ Time Any Different From Ours?

The History of all Hitherto Existing Society is the History of Class Struggles. says Karl Marx, the Social Philosopher, Economist, Sociologist, Journalist and Revolutionary socialist. In the earlier epochs of history, we find almost everywhere a complicated arrangement of society into various orders, a manifold gradation of social rank. In ancient Rome we have patricians, knights, plebeians, slaves; in the Middle Ages, feudal lords, vassals, guild-masters, journeymen, apprentices, serfs; in almost all of these classes, again, subordinate gradations.  There has been a constant struggle among the various social sections of the society for that “Power Struggle.” In common parlance, the statement “Power Struggle” is attributed to a situation where two or more people or organizations compete for influence. The question that looms in the mind of Liberal Christians and free thinking citizens is, Was Jesus’ time any different?

Why was Jesus put to death in the first place? And why was He awarded the most severe punishment ever invented by the Great Roman Empire? What was His crime? What did He do to deserve the kind of punishment awarded only to the most dreaded and notorious criminals?

The answer to the questions posed is simple enough. Jesus was not crucified because He taught love and forgiveness or because He set about debating legal points with the scribes of His day. Jesus was crucified because He was seen as a threat to the Powers-That-Be. His brand of non-violent resistance, His manner of stirring the people and empowering the poor, were correctly judged to be challenging the political power structures of His day. Contrary to the popular belief, there are Christian apologetics and writers who are of the view that Jesus was big into politics. The very fact that Jesus was directly challenging the political and religious powers of His day; those powers were the wealthy ruling classes of Judea; the Sadducees and Pharisees. Jesus as seen in the Holy Bible is seen openly rebuking the Pharisees and the Sadducees for their hypocrisy, corruption and twisted interpretations of Hebraic law. (Matthew 23: 27, 28)  These Pharisees and Sadducees were not just religious leaders. They also were the political leaders of Israel during Jesus' time. Judea was ruled by the Romans and was an occupied territory. However, the Romans did not run everything in Judea; not even close. As long as the Jews paid their taxes and didn't revolt, Rome had little interest in their internal affairs. In the words of Julian Spriggs, Lecturer and Speaker with Youth with a Mission (YWAM), “It was the normal Roman practice to leave most of the running of the government to local leaders. In Judea, this was the Sanhedrin, dominated by the Sadducees, and ruled by the High Priest. In return for their support for Roman rule, the Sadducees kept their wealth and privileged position secure.”

History recounts the Jewish Leaders of Jesus' day being unusually powerful because of weak Roman Governor of Judea, Pontius Pilate. At various times in his career he had been outwitted and humiliated by the Jewish leaders. In fact, the Roman Emperor, Tiberius Julius Caesar is believed to have rebuked Pilate and threatened to remove him due to complaints from the Jewish leaders in Judea. The very reason that Jesus was brought before Pilate lies in the fact that the Jewish Leaders were not allowed to impose Death Penalty.

Corruption, very much like today was rampant during Jesus’ time, and the religious leaders were unabashedly “Commercialising God.” It is hardly surprising in a world where corruption was the main ingredient in churning out the economy, the Leaders provided Free Market Monopoly to sell God, the rights reserved exclusively for the Pharisees and Sadducees. This claim is not substantiated without evidence. For instance, the infamous Annas got the Roman governor to appoint him High Priest of Judea (the most powerful Jewish position in the land) and later got five of his sons and one son-in-law appointed to the same position. The High Priest of Judea was also the Chairman of the powerful Sanhedrin.

It is a custom and tradition that when a Jew comes to pray at the temple and offer a sacrifice (as all males were required to do during Passover) they had to exchange Roman coins (with image of Caesar) for Jewish ones so they could buy "approved" animals to sacrifice. All this happened in the temple courtyards or in the area surrounding it. The High Priest, and his cronies, controlled everything and profited handsomely from the exorbitant fees they charged to exchange the money and sell the animals. No wonder, Jesus directly challenged the corrupt system when He physically and violently (the only time Jesus ever resorted to physical violence), cleansed the temple of those who had made it a "den of thieves" (Matthew 21:13).

Another social problem during Jesus’ time was that, the Jews under the Roman Empire were finding it hard to bear the yoke of their Ruler. It’s no surprise that Jesus was welcomed into Jerusalem with glory and honour, for the Jews perceived that Jesus would liberate them from the Roman; however the people failed to see the bigger picture and the same people who were praising Him were quick enough to curse and condemn Him to death.

Society since time immemorial has been evolving rapidly, however the social gradation or stratification has remained unchanged. The continuous struggles for power in every stream of society is almost inevitable – Politics, Religion, Economics, Social etc. No wonder, Marx rightly observed and was of the opinion that Man is by nature a ‘Conflict-Prone Animal.’ The society during Jesus’ time and today is no different. However, in spite of all the wrongs in the society in the form of power struggles and gradation and injustice, these various interpretations of Jesus' death witness to the struggle to make meaning out of the act of evil that brought Jesus' earthly life and mission to such an abrupt and cruel end. When we make sense of this human tragedy, it is imperative that we do see it first and foremost as a tragedy. Then, of course, we may well recognise that God can and does overturn evil and convert it into good. This is what came to be called in the Christian tradition as the 'law of the cross'. Nonetheless, God does not condone evil, let alone require it in order to fulfill the divine plan of salvation. The suffering and death of Jesus, along with all other instances of violence and murder, are ultimately outside the powers of rational explanation. The most we can do is to acknowledge in faith that the mystery of God's love is finally more powerful than evil and death. Jesus' death, too, needs to be recognised in this light.

“Degree of Thought is a weekly community column initiated by Tetso College in partnership with The Morung Express. Degree of Thought will delve into the social, cultural, political and educational issues around us. The views expressed here do not reflect the opinion of the institution. Tetso College is a NAAC Accredited UGC recognised Commerce and Arts College. The current editors are Dr. Hewasa Lorin, Anjan Behera, Nivibo Yiki, Yanbeni Yanthan and Kvulo Lorin. For feedback or comments please email: dot@tetsocollege.org”.





Thursday, 17 March 2016

Living Healthy! -- Noktinaro Aier, Asst Professor, Department of Education


What we do with what we have! Leading and living a healthy, physically fit, energetic and dynamic life comes through a meticulous and systematic daily routine. By juggling our jobs and personal lives in between, sustaining a healthy lifestyle becomes difficult as more immediate and pressing concerns tend to deplete the day of time, and simultaneously, energy. So, it becomes imperative to adhere to some basic lifestyle changes that we can adopt in our daily routine. Slight alterations in food, activity (physical, mental and emotional) and sleeping habits can reduce the wear and tear of our physical bodies, and add a sparkle even in our personalities. Indeed, the key to living healthy is completely in our hands.

Living Healthy!

Today our state Nagaland is plagued with many life-threatening diseases which can be seen as a direct result of our unhealthy lifestyles. News of people having sudden strokes, being diagnosed with diabetes and cancer is widely heard in almost all corners of our state. These diseases have taken away many of our near and dear ones. Of course, these diseases can be hereditary too, but they can be controlled by maintaining a healthy lifestyle. We often hear the phrase, “Health is wealth!”, which in fact is very true. The primary figure in Buddhism, Gautam Buddha said, “To keep the body in good health is a duty, otherwise we shall not be able to keep our mind strong and clear”. This in educational terms would mean a healthy body makes a healthy mind. 1 Corinthians 6:19 says that our body is the temple of the living God. The 35th President of the United States, John F Kennedy once said that physical fitness is not only one of the most important keys to a healthy body, it is the basis of dynamic and creative intellectual ability.

Much of the responsibility lies with us, as to whether we would improve or destroy our health by our actions and choices. In the past, our ancestors led a very good and healthy life because of their rigorous physical activities. They survived on nutritious organic food. Today we choose junk food over healthy homemade food, and to top it all the modern world has made our life so comfortable that we can get our work done without barely moving a finger. With this type of a sedentary lifestyle, health issues like strokes, cancers, heart diseases, liver problems, kidney problems would all come for free. Unhealthy food habits have led to many of our Naga youth having the ZooZoo belly. Excessive alcohol consumption also leads to cases of sudden stroke and many other diseases. In India, one of the leading causes of death is heart diseases and strokes. According to a report by WHO, 40 million people are suffering from this disease. Most of us are aware of the fact that diabetes is a slow killer, but we tend to neglect the slow effect and just go on with our daily unhealthy regime. My father himself is diabetic though fortunately his condition was diagnosed at an early stage. I have witnessed many men and women in our society who are not even aware of their condition until some major health problem arose, and by then it was too late for remedial measures.  We Nagas have this carefree attitude, and when we are faced with some health issues, we often visit the quacks rather than a licensed doctor. This, in turn, deteriorates our condition. If only we develop a habit of a monthly family routine check up, most of our health ailments could be checked. It is always better to be safe than sorry. Though a problem standing in the way of regular check ups is that of the economy. It may not be possible for each and every family to go for routine check ups owing to their financial condition. In that case, we can always do one thing i.e., lead a healthy and effective living by choice. The majority of our life decisions depend on us and a few with a little bit of luck. Those who do not have a history of cancer in their family can still take up some healthy measures in order to avoid cancer-causing behaviours, like tobacco consumption. There are so many cases of cancer from Nagaland itself. Our ancestors lived up to hundred years and above but today our life span is cut down from 80-90 years to 40-60 years. We have witnessed our grandparents and great-grandparents who survived for long with no major ailments. My grandfather of 96 years is himself living proof. He still enjoys a very good and healthy life.

Therefore, we are to blame for our faulty lifestyles and our poor choice of living a healthy life. We fail to maintain a balance in life and we usually tend to overdo it, be it eating or drinking. Stress may also lead to certain health risking problems like high blood pressure which eventually may lead to stroke, depression, high blood pressure, etc. All these sicknesses and diseases are interrelated and its prevalence totally depends on us and how we live life. We should try to inculcate in us some life-saving good habits like taking a good long walk, a daily 30 minute exercise to shake off that extra body fat, drink water like a fish, maintain a well-balanced diet, keep stress at bay, be yoga friendly, have a positive attitude towards life, and above all get a good night’s rest. The key to living healthy is in our hands.

Wednesday, 9 March 2016

Step It Up for Gender Equality -Sosangmar, BA 4th Semester (Political Science Honours)

Sosangmar, BA 4th Semester (Political Science Honours)
On 6th March 2016, Air India operated what is claimed to be the world’s longest ‘all women crew’ flight from Delhi to San Francisco, covering a distance of 14,500 kilometers. Does this mean women in India are free and independent? Probably not, and if the incidents of violence against women along with issues of unequal wages are to be considered, certainly not. However, it is a beginning yes. We as a community still have a long way to go to create a world where there is no bias based on gender. Change cannot come in a day. We all need to constantly Persevere and work together to bring in change.


Step It Up for Gender Equality


The word ‘domination’ is a commonly used word in English, yet its meaning is not as   pleasant as its phonetic sound. It denotes all kinds of authority, implying the presence of a victim, and subsequently, a denouncement of the victim’s personal, social, political, and     economic rights. If we take a glimpse down the pages of history, we will see that in fact,mostconflicts and revolutions erupted due to the domination of one over another, or whenthis discursive authority is forcibly imposed on another. History has shown us masters dominating slaves, lords dominating serfs, and employers dominating workers. Keeping this understanding of domination and what it entails in mind, let us delve into understandingthe word ‘Patriarchy’.

Literally, ‘Patriarchy’ means ‘rule of the father’. Originally it was used to denote a social system based on the authority of male as the head of the household. Presently, it denotes ‘male domination’ in general by excluding women’s rights in decision making and domestic division of labour. Here we can see two contending classes and genders struggling over their status in society. Since patriarchy favors the male, the woman is denied her basic rights. This inferior status to women in society in relation to men is therefore, the product of the institution of patriarchy. In any case, the dominance of men and submissiveness of women are not directly based on biological differences. Broadly speaking, these are the products of the social institutions that have been based on a patriarchal culture. It endorses domestic division of labour in familial spaces  and a biased economic system. Therefore, to truly ensure a woman her divine right, these exploitative systems must alter the nature of their workings. To deny a woman her basic right on the pretext of   socio-cultural and traditional designs is to deny the rights of  all humankind.

In the contemporary world, it has become necessary to draw a distinction between ‘sex’ and ‘gender’ to understand the issues concerning the status of women and grasp the seriousness of gender inequality. Sociologically, the term ‘sex’ is confined to biological differences that construct ‘male’ and ‘female’ with distinct physical features. But when we use the term ‘gender’, we enter the cultural realm referring to the ideas that construct images and expectation of both male and female By the same token, it becomes evident that nature has divided humans into men and women but their status, role and contribution is defined by cultural expectation endorsed by stereotypes. This mode of thought should be challenged and altered in the light of growing social consciousness.

In no case do women differ from men in their talents, skills, and capabilities. With the development of technology and sweeping changes taking place in our society, women are capable of doing what men can do, and perhaps, even more efficiently. The legacy of art and poetry since the 1800s have portrayed women as an object of beauty,  an entity of fragile constitution, and a commodity to be admired and possessed. . Her voice is systematically and forcefully denied expression. It is necessary to view men and women, the essence of humankind, as essential agents of change enjoying equal rights in all spheres of life without any hindrances.

One must understand that the voice of women is not a voice against men. It is a voice against the tyranny that enslaved women and deprived them of their share in education, health, opportunities as well as their adequate share in economic and political power. It is the voice of the survivors of rape crying out for justice. It is the voice of the suppressed reverberating in society so that they can have their say in decision making. This voice shall continue to strive for hope, equality, and understanding. As long as women are raped, sexually harassed, and paid lower than the men, we cannot claim to be a society which considers women as equals.  It is the birthright of every woman  to be respected in society and as well as within the confines of her home; to live as she desires,  to endorse a lifestyle she willingly chooses and to participate in decision-making anywhere as a fellow human, without the fear of suppression.


This year, International Women’s day has been celebrated with great zeal and passion emphasizing on women’s rights. It is celebrated to acknowledge the contribution of women to society. Let’s hope for the day when there will be no discrimination based on gender in any form. It will be a world where all women can live in peace and truly be free. 

Wednesday, 2 March 2016

Lots of Education, but no Values? - Dr. Hewasa Lorin, Director-Student Services& Academics





  Dr. Hewasa Lorin, Director-Student Services& Academics
Youth Net recently held a very successful
youth summit which recognised many
   talented achievers in our Naga society. It is a great feeling to know that our society is progressing at   such a rapid pace and in such a short span of time From being head hunters to entrepreneurs, doctors,engineers and bureaucrats, we have come a long way. Education is one thing but values are another. In spite of the many shortcomings there can be hope and optimism. This optimism can translate to practical reality and increase in speed if we can make sure that we strengthen our value system.





Lots of Education, but no Values?



I strongly believe in the value of education and the power it has to change a lot of things in this world. But I also think that a lot can go wrong if we don’t do it correctly or if our concepts are not clear. By education I do not mean only formal academic education, but educating and spreading awareness about the right values, positivity and progressive mindsets.

When we think about Nagaland and the many problems we keep complaining about in our State, some of them justified and some of them maybe not, to name a few - challenges in the bureaucracy, infrastructure, lack of development, weak administration, poor work environment or nepotism, one would think that an education would help reduce these problems by producing individuals with the required skill sets or values or to come up with a system to fix, or solve these issues. Isn’t education, both academic and holistic supposed to do that? We spend our lives being educated. Rationally speaking, doesn’t that mean we should be equipped with the knowledge and ability to help confront these problems or improve the system we have by the time we are old enough to work?

While we cannot expect education to be like a magic potion that will make everything better, it is no doubt, a powerful tool with which nation building is strengthened. That is why we must ask the question - what kind of education are we imparting? Is it the kind where we will grow up to care enough about working for the development of society? Individual success and achievement follows naturally with goals that envision the larger picture. The type of education implied here is one that is continuous and that promotes critical thinking, value creation and individual opinions. And maybe we are doing that to a certain extent - we have training programmes, awareness campaigns, capacity building initiatives and seminars that promote new learning and skills. But are they as impactful as they should be?

For anything concrete to materialize, we need skilled people in the work force. People who know what they are talking about. People who can change the opinions of other people in the right way. People with the skill set and the right passion to be able to put individualistic gains aside and think about the welfare of the society. This means that when it comes to learning, academic and holistic education are integral in building up an individual that lives by the right principles and correct values. It should be so deeply ingrained that they live these out of habit. To broadly categorise society, in the government, we have decision makers, policy creators, and implementers. In the field of education we have thinkers, skill builders and trainers. In the professional world, we have practitioners and professionalized expertise. The key and also the challenge would be in utilizing all these skilled resources from all three and working together to fulfil the common vision of a progressive, economically prosperous and positive society. But if the government works closer together with educational institutions to help instil the needed skills and train minds towards adopting the right approach, and along with professional practitioners from different fields, wouldn’t the citizens of a state feel increasingly motivated and accountable towards good governance and citizenship.  

I believe it also narrows down to our fundamentals. If we are not clear about our concepts or the purpose we are trying to achieve, we falter and make bad choices that override our principles. We can say that we have forgotten our fundamentals when a government job is given to a tribesman from the same community or family member over a more deserving candidate or it could be when a parent requests that their child be given a pass certificate and promoted to the next class despite failing in the exam, and even though being promoted to the next class with no proper knowledge of subject matter would be more harmful in the long run. Not to point fingers here, but understanding that everyone has a reason for their actions – could be pressure from the community, owing a favour to someone or love/pity for the child - we need to figure out a way to make each other understand that in doing so we are also promoting a future of favouritism, inefficiency, and short-cuts that promote complacency.

To have strong fundamentals and concepts in place, we need to educate one another on processes or methods of functioning. It means that when new policies, projects or schemes are being initiated, we need to care enough to keep the checks and balances in place and follow up to ensure that they are being effectively managed and executed. Society, the youth, men and women all play a greater role than we actually have been in working together with the government to bring about progress and development.We talk about wanting to see a change in Nagaland. Then let’s keep on educating one another.


The Reality of Primary Schools - Inaholi Aye, BA 5th Semester, English Honours

Image credits- morungexpress.com Charles Dickens in his famed novel Hard Times critiqued M’Choakumchild, a Victorian era school te...